Who it affects

Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common disorder and typically affects older patients than type 1 diabetes. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in overweight and obese patients and there is often a family history of type 2 diabetes.

What gland is involved

In type 2 diabetes the pancreas produces insufficient insulin to control glucose levels adequately.


Although patients may present as an emergency and very unwell, increasingly patient`s are being diagnosed whilst relatively well in the community. This may reflect a greater awareness of diabetes and screening in people at increased risk.


Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is made with blood tests. Urine tests may also be performed.


The basis for treatment of type 2 diabetes is a healthy lifestyle. Your dietician will advise you of the dietary changes required. Patients with this disorder, not uncommonly require treatment with medicines such as Metformin and sulphonylureas. Newer agents are continually being developed and being incorporated into treatment algorithms. 

Patients with type 2 diabetes that are not adequately controlled on oral medication, may also require treatment with insulin. This may be administered once or more times per day. Precise insulin regimes are tailored individually. Some newer agents such as Exenatide are also administered through injections. Exenatide can aid weight loss and is not a form of insulin.


Well controlled diabetes has a good prognosis. Poorly controlled diabetes in the longer term may be associated with disorders affecting the eyes, kidneys, nerves and brain. Poorly controlled diabetes may thus reduce the quality of life as well as survival. It is therefore important that patients with diabetes attend regular appointments to ensure good control is being achieved and that any complications are being detected and managed appropriately.

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